PROGRAM UNIT PDO 204: Job Specification

Acorn Training School

PDO 204

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2 week
PDO 204


Nsereko Mohammadi
Training Instructor
Kahuura esther
PROGRAM UNIT PDO 201: Introduction to Predeparture Orientation Training
Anyango Jesca
PROGRAM UNIT PDO 204: Job Specification
Nakabanda Saudah
Class Instructor


Plot 2632,Princess Road -Kimbejja Namugongo Division, Kira Municipality   View map


PDO Training

PROGRAM UNIT PDO 204: Job Specification

Session 1: Job Description and Specification

Session 2: Nature of the Job

Session 3: Job Skilling (Practical Guidelines)

Session 4: Work and Occupational Hazards

Job Specification 


Suggested Total Duration: 18 Hrs.

Suggested Duration



20 Min Session 1: Job Description and Job Specification   
3 hrs Session 2: Nature of the Job  
13hrs Session 3: Job Skilling  
2 hrs Session 4: Work and Occupational Hazards


Module Aims

By the end of this module, participants should be able to:

  1. Fully understand their specific job requirement.
  2. Demonstrate practical knowledge of the job they are going to do.
  3. Exhibit the capability to use and operate the tools and equipment required for the proper execution of the job.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of the occupational hazards and risks of the job they are undertaking.
  5. Explain how to manage occupation hazards and risks.






Session 1: Job Description and Specification

Session Objectives

By the end of this session, the participants should be able to:

  1. Understand the specificities of the job they are going to do.
  2. Assess their capability in fulfilling the job they have been employed to do.
 Suggested Duration 20 Min
10 min   Job Description

10 min   Job Specification

Methodology:                Presentations, and case study.
Facilitator Materials:     Flip charts, markers, and video clips.
Participants Materials:    Copies of the slides or takeaway notes.


Session Activities

  1. Explain the meaning and features of a job description.
  2. Explain the meaning and features of a job specification.
  3. Explain the implication of understanding the difference between a job description and job specification to enable one choose a job.




Job Description and Specification

Job description is a document which states an overview of the duties, responsibilities, and functions of the specific job in an organization. It is a statement of qualification, personality traits, skills, etc.



When one gets a job or is looking for one, they should make sure that they have the following:

  1. The right qualifications to meet that job (e.g., degree, certificate, diploma, or certifications).
  2. Being familiar with the duties and responsibilities.
  3. They have the right skills to do the job (e.g., computer skills, application packages or job computer programs).


For a migrant to change jobs, it has a lot of implications to the visa as well; most often you will have a visa cancellation and new application. It is, therefore, important to find out the details and terms of changing contracts and visa during job change.


If you are changing jobs within the same organization, you might not find a problem and you might not have to pay fees or forfeit salary as compared to when changing jobs to another company.


Domestic workers have a problem changing or even growing their career since in homes, it is a different setting. Also, leaving the domestic job is very difficult as compared to other jobs.


It is important for a migrant planning to change job, to conduct a job analysis. This process will involve studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. This will help them make an informed decision other than just changing jobs and finding that the previous job was much better than the new one.




Session 2: Nature of the Job

Session Objectives

By the end of this session, participants should be able to:

  1. Grasp the technical aspects of the job.
  2. Follow and be able to manage their time effectively.
 Suggested Duration 3 Hrs
1 hr 30 min     Examples of Nature of Jobs

1 hr 30 min    Time Management and Work Scheduling

Methodology:                  Presentations, hands-on exercise, case study, and brainstorming
Facilitator Materials:       Flip charts, markers, and video clips.
Participants Materials:      Copies of the slides or takeaway notes.


Session Activities / Exercise

  1. Task participants to explain/ describe the job they are going to undertake.
  2. Task the participants to describe the duties and responsibilities entailed in the job they will be doing in the COD.







Nature of the Job

The nature of an employeee’s work is best defined as the type of work that he or she does. This can refer to the basic daily tasks carried out as part of the job. In executing their duties, migrants require to use the 21st century competencies and skills in order to perform well as well as remain competitive at work.


Nature of the job is also termed as the actual services or duties you offer or execute.

Examples of Nature of Jobs

Domestic worker – Domestic workers provide a range of services in private homes: they sweep and clean; wash clothes and dishes; shop and cook; and care for children, the elderly, and the disabled.

Cashier – Cashiers are present in the checkout area and are in charge of handling transactions. These employees perform duties such as scanning products, collecting payments, counting the money from the cash drawer, comparing receipts with revenues, and solving any customer inquiries.

Security guard – These workers ensure the safety of everyone at the mall. They work for stores or the shopping center itself, patrolling the premises, checking surveillance equipment, and removing those who pose a threat. Mall security guards assist during emergencies and contact law enforcement officers when required.

Cleaner – Cleaners carry out tasks such as dusting, mopping, sweeping, waxing floors and vacuuming, and refilling supplies, such as toilet paper and paper towels.They clean spills, broken glass, and other messes as quickly as possible.

The nature of each job is different and is related to the job description provided in the employment offer.




Integration of Time Management and Work Scheduling in Job Description

Exercise 1

Task participants how they will be able to use each of the time management skills in the execution of duties.

Key time management skills include:

  • Prioritizing
  • Planning
  • Delegation
  • Decision-making
  • Goal setting
  • Multitasking
  • Monitoring
  • Reminders


Exercise 2

With a clear justification, task the participants to tell which of the time management skills is or are not applicable to their specific job descriptions.



How to Improve Time Management Skills


  1. Start your tasks early. If you have the opportunity, starting a task before you are scheduled to begin working on it can help you overcome the initial preparatory stages of an assignment. This enables you to start developing your strategy preemptively, which can also help overcome procrastination.
  2. Set limits for what you will say yes to. Many people will accept as many responsibilities as others ask of them to make a positive impression and demonstrate their dedication to their work. However, taking on too many responsibilities can make developing a schedule that accommodates all of your tasks very challenging. Setting limits to how many active jobs you are willing to accept from others can help you avoid having an overwhelming number of responsibilities.
  3. Give yourself breaks. Dedicating time in your day to brief disconnections from your work will allow you to decompress and come back to your active tasks with a new perspective and more stamina. Learning when to take dedicated breaks throughout your day will also help you develop effective stress management habits.
  4. Prioritize your tasks. Determine how important each of your tasks is to each other. Assigning a priority to specific tasks can help you focus your efforts on the things that need your time the most. Practicing prioritizing your tasks allows you to understand how to better construct your schedules and identify which tasks are worth delegating.
  5. Schedule your tasks and their deadlines. Take time to compose a detailed schedule for each of your active tasks and set firm deadlines for them. Doing this can help you visualize which tasks need more effort and can help you better understand the pace at which you are capable of completing your work. Make a habit of keeping your schedule up to date, as a comprehensive schedule can serve as the foundation for helping you grow your planning and prioritization skills.
  6. Organize your workspace. An organized workspace can help you save time within your day by preventing you from having to search for the materials you need to complete each task. Additionally, developing organizational skills will help you strengthen your planning capabilities. Not having to worry about finding particular documents or task materials will help alleviate daily stress.
  7. Learn your patterns of productivity. Everybody has different patterns of how productive they are throughout their day. Some people are much more efficient in the earlier hours of the day, whereas others may not hit their productivity peak until after lunch. Identifying what times of day are the most productive for you can help you use each part of the day more effectively. By scheduling faster or easier tasks during your less productive times, you ensure that your peak productivity is being devoted to longer, higher-priority tasks.
  8. Use technology to help keep you accountable. Time tracking and daily management software are becoming more commonly integrated into the workplace every year. Time-tracking software allows you to time how long it takes you to complete individual tasks, and daily management software integrates your time-tracking results into your schedule. Together, these tools will allow you to create more realistic and accurate schedules and can help you catch yourself before becoming distracted or procrastinating for too long.
  9. Focus on one task at a time. Multitasking may seem like an effective strategy to accomplish multiple tasks more quickly. This is more ideal for tasks that don’t require too much concentration; e.g., cooking while doing dishes. However, for those tasks that require total focus; e.g., cashiers, nurses, etc., those who focus on completing two assignments one at a time typically complete each task faster and with greater quality than those who multitask. Spending your time focusing on completing one task at a time will also help you reduce the potential for distractions.
  10. Reinforce your good habits. When you finish tasks or you notice that you have made a difference in your productivity by developing your time-management skills using some of these techniques, you may want to reinforce your success with a small reward. Finding an enjoyable reward for yourself that does not detract your daily productivity may reduce stress and motivate you to continue developing your time-management skills.



Session 3: Job Skilling (Practical Guidelines)


Session Objective 

By the end of this session, participants should be able to:

  1. Develop the capability to use and operate the tools, gadgets, or machines relevant to the job.
  2. Have clear knowledge of the skills and best practice for their job.
  3. Effectively and efficiently operate on their job.
  4. Have proper hands-on experience on the job requirements and tools.
Suggested Duration 13 Hrs
1 hr 30 min     Importance of Job Skilling

1 hr 30 min     How to develop an effective skilling program

10hrs             Physical skilling Requirements

Methodology:              Presentations, demonstration, hands-on exercise, and simulations.
Facilitator Materials     Flip charts, markers, video clips, and relevant tools and equipment.
Participants Materials      Copies of the slides or takeaway notes.



Session Activities

  • Put in place an effective skilling program in light of the needs of the target migrants.
  • Explain to the migrants the actual skill set required for the job they are undertaking.
  • Practically demonstrate the usage of the tools and machines that are required for the specific job.





Types of Skilling

  • Soft skilling – Training intended to improve the personality of a person; i.e., it is“personality-focused”. This training will include people skills, social skill, interpersonal skills, and transferable skills (21st century competencies). Soft skills deal more with interpersonal relationship and involve things like conflict resolution, communication, listening and problem-solving.
  • Practical/Hard skilling – This involves imparting technical, hands-on skills that are often job-specific, and are related to the core of the job one is employed for, such as computer networking, machine operation, construction, cookery, etc.


How to Develop an Effective Skilling Program

  1. Understand your trainee needs. Identify the skills and knowledge your trainees need to succeed now and in the future. Interview and observe trainees, look for inefficiencies in the company and determine whether training would help or if company processes need to change. Once you understand the potential challenges trainees face, identify what training can help meet their needs.
  2. Determine training methods. Hands-on work may involve demonstrations, simulations, coaching/mentoring, or job shadowing. Classroom training, such as role-playing, lectures, and tutorials may also help employees improve their skills.
  3. Choose trainers carefully. Make sure your trainers are proficient in the work and are skilled at transferring their knowledge and experience to others. Trainers should create a positive learning environment, tailor their program to different learning styles, and inspire and motivate trainees.
  4. Consider different learning styles. Take an approach that addresses different learning styles. For example, some trainees may prefer a slide presentation with a lot of visual content, whereas others may learn better through discussions and role-playing. The key is not to choose one over the other but, rather, to present the information in several different ways.
  5. Evaluate. To determine the effectiveness of training, establish standards to evaluate each trainee. At the end of training, and at set intervals following the training, assess whether employees have the needed skills and knowledge. Make sure these skills have been transferred to their job and look for impacts on productivity. Additionally, ask trainees to evaluate their trainers and the program as a whole.
  6. Follow-up. At regular intervals after the training, check in with the trainees to determine how much of the training they are retaining and using, solicit feedback on their experience, and provide ongoing support, as necessary.


Physical Skilling Requirements for Various Jobs

  1. Cashier – Knowledge of a teller machine, fake money detection machine, and item scanning machines.
  2. Security guard – Knowledge about body scanner, temperature gun, CCTV cameras, and property-scanning machine for dangerous items.
  3. Cleaner – Knowledge about various detergents and how they are used, cleaning equipment for different surfaces, heavy cleaning equipment, and protective gears.
  4. Domestic worker – Knowledge of use of household gadgets (cooker, washing machine, microwave, electric kettle, flat iron), and cleaning, refer to No. 3 above.

Note: It is recommended to have simulation videos as well as physical equipment for the migrants to have a practical feel of what is being referred to.



Session 4: Work and Occupational Hazards

Session Objectives

By the end of this session, participants should be able to:

  1. Maintain and understand the occupational hazard awareness parameters.
  2. Evaluate and control occupational hazards and risks.
  3. Understand how to properly review the occupational warnings and signs and follow them.
Suggested Duration 2 Hrs
1 hr     Work and Occupational Hazards

1 hr   Cultural Shock

Methodology:              Presentations, discussion, brainstorming, guest speakers, case study, and peer teaching.
Facilitator Materials:    Flip charts, markers, and video clips.
Participants Materials:   Copies of the slides or takeaway notes.


Session Activities

  • Deliver a presentation on the common work-related hazards.
  • Deliver a presentation on occupational safety and health challenges.
  • Brainstorm on the likely work hazards related to a job one is undertaking.
  • Brainstorm on the likely occupational health and safety challenges associated with the job one is undertaking.
  • Discuss on the likely cultural shock migrants might face in the COD.
  • Experience sharing session with former migrants in the same field.






Work Hazards /Occupational Safety and Health Risks

Most jobs of migrant workers are classified as 3-D jobs; meaning Dirty, Dangerous and Demanding (sometimes also degrading and demeaning). Below are some of the work hazards and challenges a migrant worker may face:

  1. Language, education, and cultural barriers – A key challenge for many migrant workers is the language barrier in the country of destination, especially for those who are illiterate. When they cannot understand or read the language of their host country, migrant workers are exposed to occupational safety and health (OSH) risks.
  2. Social exclusion – Migrant workers, especially domestic workers, suffer significant degree of social exclusion, leaving them more vulnerable, which is a risk to their wellbeing and in most cases causes stress.
  3. Discrimination – Most migrants, especially women, suffer from discrimination on grounds of sex and association, and gender roles. This will be reflected in pay levels. Other discrimination grounds will be age, religion, nationality, etc.
  4. Lack of access to health care and social protection – Many migrant workers lack social protection due to the informal nature of employment. However, if a migrant contacts the Embassy or NGOs, sometimes they can be heard. It is a right of a migrant worker to have access to medical care; however, some employers don’t provide the medical coverage or deduct the cost from the migrant’s salary in instances where they pay for medical treatment.
  5. Physically strenuous labor and poor working conditions – Both domestic work and construction work require monotonous but also strenuous tasks and action (such as frequent repetitive lifting and awkward postures like bending or twisting) that in a long term can cause physical problems. Moreover, working under these conditions means these risks are not recognized and that special equipment is not put in place to support workers.
  6. Long working hours and lack of rest – Migrant workers, especially domestic workers, are entitled to weekly rest and annual leave and set working hours; however, some workers have unpredictable working hours. The physical and mental fatigue resulting from working excessive hours also affects workers’ ability to perform their task and is a big risk to their health, leading to increased workplace accidents.
  7. Hazardous work – Migrant workers face several risks from use of equipment such as electrical appliances, machines and handling dangerous and heavy equipment. Migrants are often exposed to toxic and unhealthy substances, yet they are not given protective gloves and masks. In case of caregivers caring for the sick, those with infectious diseases pose a risk to migrants.
  8. Sexual abuse and violence – This is particularly common with domestic workers in private households. They are frequently subjected to abuse as well as exploitation. They risk being psychologically abused, insulted, threatened, and belittled; combined with excessive demand for work, this is a very big OSH risk.

Cultural Shock

What is cultural shock? This is referred to as the confusion someone might face when they change environment or living location. The diversity of the world presents the difference in culture from one areas/country to another.

Cultural shock is manifested in the following ways:

  1. Behavior –The way people behave, or react to some things.
  2. Religion – How people worship or what they worship.
  3. Food – What people eat and how they eat (table manners and behavior).
  4. Family life – The family orientation, and the role of each family member.
  5. Dressing – How people dress and their dress code for various functions.

All these might relatively differ from country to country or region to region. Migrants need to be mindful that they need to respect the culture of the COD and try to adapt to it. If it is something that will not cause any legal issues, they can politely decline (especially for food).

Since they are not in the COO, they should not impose their culture and way of doing things in the COD, and they should only practice those aspects that do not necessarily affect anyone in the COD.

Briefly explain to the migrants the stages of adaptation given the various jobs they are going to do. Each job possesses a different adaptation requirement.

PDO 204