PROGRAM UNIT PDO 209: Health and Emerging Issues
Session 1: Health in Destination Country
Session 2: Emerging Issues and Trends in Migration
|Suggested Total Duration: 8 hrs
|Session 1: Health in Destination Country
|Session 2: Emerging Issues and Trends in Migration
By the end of this module, participants should be able to:
- Explain the health-related issues and how to deal with them in the destination country.
- Demonstrate knowledge of how migrants can cope with emerging trends, alerts and how to follow them.
By the end of this session, participants should be able to:
- Know his/her medical entitlement and what it covers.
- Have the ability to seek medical attention and know the procedure of seeking medical attention.
- Know the common illnesses and how to deal with them.
- Know the important aspects that impact their health and wellbeing.
- Understand the importance of self-healthcare and personal hygiene.
|30 min Access to Medical Care
30 min Common Illnesses
1 hr Personal First Aid and Home Remedies
30 min Vaccinations
1 hr Sexuality, Sexual Harassment and Abuse
30 min Contraceptives
1hr Personal Hygiene
|Methodology: Presentations, Guest speakers
|Facilitator Materials: Flip charts, markers, and video clips
|Participants Materials: Copies of the slides or take away notes
- Explain the process of accessing medical care in the COD.
- Explain the common illnesses that affect migrant workers in the COD.
- Brainstorm on the First Aid procedures and home remedies that can be useful to migrant workers.
- Explain the important vaccinations needed by a migrant worker for both his/her personal benefit as well the requirement from the COD.
- Experience sharing on sexual abuse and harassment cases from migrant workers, NGOs or other officials that have assisted former victims.
- Explain the issue of contraceptives in relation to the COD.
- Discuss the best way to maintain personal hygiene.
KEY SESSION READING MATERIALS
Health in Country of Destination
This session is aimed at helping migrants cope with various medical and health issues they might face while in the COD.
- Getting Medical Care
- If you fall sick or have any other health problems, you should go to a clinic or a hospital to see a doctor. Many migrants, to save money or because they do not have medical insurance, will opt to buy medicines on their own when they are sick, but this is dangerous. If you take the wrong medicine, you might poison yourself or make the illness worse.
- When you go to another country, ensure that you find out where the nearest hospital or clinic is and what its timings are.
- In many cases, your employer will take care of health costs and medicines, but this depends on your job and employment contract. If your contract does not include health costs, you will have to pay for them yourself.
- When you go to a doctor, you should be honest with him/her about what you are feeling and what you have been doing. If you do not give the doctor all the information, he/she may not be able to properly understand what is wrong and what medicine you should take.
- If the doctor tells you to take a specific medicine, do not take any other medicine instead. Also, make sure you take the exact amount of medicine the doctor tells you to, not less and not more, and take the medicine at the right time.
- Follow all the doctor’s instructions carefully. If there is something you do not understand, ask the doctor again.
- Common illnesses
- The following are some of the health problems migrant workers face:
- Chest pains and respiratory problems due to heavy workload or exposure to air conditioning that one may not be used to.
- Stomach problems – Constipation due to the different types of food in the COD. Preferably, eat more vegetables and avoid carbonated food.
- Fungal infections.
- Psychological stress.
- Personal First Aid and Home Remedies
- Spilling hot food or liquid.
- Touching a hot plate.
- Open fire, sauna stove.
- Symptoms of the mildest form of burn, a superficial burn, is redness and stinging sensation on the skin. The injury usually heals by itself in a few weeks without leaving any trace.
- A deeper burn causes blisters to form in the area in addition to severe pain and redness, and the area secretes tissue fluid.
- A burn down to the deepest layers of the skin is scabby, grey, and charred. Even the tissues beneath the skin are damaged. The area does not feel pain because the nerves are damaged, but it always requires hospital care.
- Cool the burn immediately with cool water for approximately 10 minutes.
- If necessary, protect the injured area with a clean, light bandage.
- Do not break the blisters because they protect the area from inflammation.
Go see the doctor if:
- The burn is blistered and extensive.
- The burn reaches the deeper layers of the skin.
- The injury is in the head, joint, mucous membrane, or airway area.
- You are unsure about the severity of the injury.
- Electrical accidents are shocks or burns that result from exposure or touch of electrical equipment, naked electrical wires, etc.
- Dark areas where the current went in and came out of the body.
- Electrical current may stop the breathing and the heart (cause lifelessness).
- Ensure your own safety by shutting down the electricity from a main switch or by pulling the plug out of the socket.
- If necessary, detach the victim from the source of power using an object which does not conduct electricity (board, piece of clothing, rope).
- Only touch the victim after they are detached from the power source.
- Ensure that the victim can be woken up and is breathing.
- Cool any burns.
- Take the victim for further care or call for help.
- Blunt trauma.
- Bleeding to the tissue.
- Bruising of the injured area.
- Apply careful pressure with something cold for approximately 15 minutes. However, do not place the cold directly on the skin.
- Bruises usually heal by themselves.
- If the bruise is located in the eye area, a visit to the doctor is necessary.
- Injury to the face area.
- Nose blowing or picking.
- Individual tendency.
- Bleeding from usually one nostril.
- Feeling weak.
- Nausea if blood flows to the stomach.
- Blow the victim’s nose clear of any clotted blood.
- Push the bleeding nostril to the nasal cartilage for approximately 15 minutes.
- Help the victim to sit leaning forward, to prevent the blood from flowing to the throat.
- If the bleeding continues and is extensive, take the victim to a doctor or call for help.
Wounds which can be treated at home
People usually suffer small cuts and superficial scrapes which can be treated at home. In case of a profusely bleeding wound, bruise, or bite, take the victim to a doctor.
- Falling may cause a scratch or flesh wound.
- A sharp object, even something like a paper, may cause a cut.
- A nail, knife, or sharp stick may cause a puncture wound.
- In a flesh wound, the surface layer of the skin is damaged, and blood and tissue fluid seep or bleed out of the wound. There may also be dirt in the wound.
- The edges of a cut are neat, and it may bleed. In deep cuts, the muscles, tendons, and other tissues may also be damaged.
- In puncture wounds, a puncture is visible, and the worst damage may be caused to the deeper tissues.
- Stop the bleeding.
- Clean the wound area with running water.
- Tie the edges of a cut closely together with tape.
- Cover the wound with a bandage.
- Keep the area clean and dry. Infection is always possible in cuts.
- Medical substances.
- Berries, mushrooms, plants.
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Disorientation and decreased level of consciousness.
- Cold sweat.
- In case of severe symptoms, call for help.
- Try to find out which substance caused the poisoning, how much of it was consumed, and when.
- If the mouth still contains the substance which caused the poisoning, rinse it.
- Call for help. If you can get an online help, that will be good to direct you on managing the victim immediately as you wait for help to reach.
- Follow the instructions given from the Poison Information Centre.
- If the substance is not a solvent or alcohol, give the victim medicinal charcoal according to the instructions of the Poison Information Centre or the medicinal charcoal package.
- Twisting of a limb.
- Falling, hitting something.
- Falling from a high place.
- Pain when using the limb.
- The limb does not function as normal.
- In a compound fracture, tissue damage and visible bleeding.
- In a simple fracture, swelling due to internal bleeding.
- Stop any visible bleeding by applying pressure to the injury.
- Do not try to correct the malposition.
- Support and immobilize the fractured limb in a position as painlessly as possible using your hand, a triangular bandage, or a splint, for example.
- Ensure that the victim stays warm.
- Do not move the victim any more than necessary.
- Take the victim to a doctor or call for help.
Dislocation of a joint
- Tripping, hitting something.
- The joint does not function as usual.
- Support and immobilize the joint as far as possible in its current position.
- Place something cold in the injured area (not directly onto the skin).
- Take the victim to a doctor.
- Twisting of a joint.
- Swelling, bruise.
- The limb does not function as usual.
- Apply pressure to the injured area.
- Place an ice pack, for example, around the injury (not directly onto the skin) and tie it firmly for 15–20 minutes.
- If necessary, take the victim to a doctor.
A sunstroke is the first symptom of excessive heat in the body. To prevent it, protecting the victim’s head with a hat or cap when they are in the sun is essential. Protecting the skin with clothes and sunscreen reduces the risk of sunburn on the sensitive skin of a victim. Limiting the time spent in direct sunlight and ensuring regular hydration reduce the risk of symptoms caused by excessive heat.
– Heat radiation from sunlight, for example, on an unprotected head and neck.
- Feeling weak, dizziness.
- Take the victim away from direct sunlight. Remember that on a beach, water intensifies the effects of sunlight.
- Cool the victim by giving them cool water to drink and taking off excessive clothes.
- Help the victim to rest.
- If the symptoms do not cease, take the victim to a doctor.
COVID-19 is the disease caused by a new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 is a pandemic. A pandemic is a disease that is prevalent over a whole country or the world.
– Exposure to infection through contact with infected persons, surfaces touched or exposed to by infected persons.
The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are:
- Dry cough.
Other symptoms that are less common and may affect some patients include:
- Loss of taste or smell.
- Nasal congestion.
- Conjunctivitis (also known as red eyes).
- Sore throat.
- Muscle or joint pain.
- Different types of skin rash.
- Nausea or vomiting.
- Chills or dizziness.
First aid: – if symptoms are not severe
- Isolate from the rest of the community to avoid further spread.
- Steam with essential oils that help with reduction of congestion in the nose and throat.
- Eat a lot of fruits and vegetable rich in vitamin C.
- Have time to be exposed to the sun for vitamin D.
Mint has been used for hundreds of years as a health remedy. Peppermint oil might help with irritable bowel syndrome — a long-term condition that can cause cramps, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation — and it may be good for headaches as well. More studies are needed to see how much it helps and why. People use the leaf for other conditions, too, but there’s very little evidence it helps with any of them.
This natural sweetener may work just as well for a cough as over-the-counter medicines. That could be especially helpful for children who are not old enough to take those medicines. But do not give it to an infant or a toddler younger than one year old. There is a small risk of a rare but serious kind of food poisoning that could be dangerous for them. And while you may have heard that “local” honey can help with allergies, studies do not back that up.
This spice has been hyped as being able to help with a variety of conditions from arthritis to fatty liver. There is some early research to support this. Other claims, such as healing ulcers and helping with skin rashes after radiation, are lacking proof. If you try it, do not overdo it: high doses can cause digestive problems.
It has been used for thousands of years in Asian medicine to treat stomachaches, diarrhea, and nausea, and studies show that it works for nausea and vomiting. There is some evidence that it might help with menstrual cramps, too. But it is not necessarily good for everyone. Some people get tummy trouble, heartburn, diarrhea, and gas because of it, and it may affect how some medications work. So, talk to your doctor, and use it with care.
This comforting drink does more than keep you awake and alert. It is a great source of some powerful antioxidants that can protect your cells from damage and help you fight disease. It may even lower your odds of heart disease and certain kinds of cancers, like skin, breast, lung, and colon.
Some studies show that people who eat more garlic are less likely to get certain types of cancer (garlic supplements do not seem to have the same effect). It also may lower blood cholesterol and blood pressure levels, but it does not seem to help that much.
You may have heard that it can help control blood sugar for people who have prediabetes or diabetes. But there is no evidence that it does anything for any medical condition. If you plan to try it, be careful: cinnamon extracts can be bad for your liver in large doses.
It is good for all kinds of things that affect your muscles, bones, and tendons (the tissues that connect your muscles to your bones), like arthritis, back pain, and joint pain. And warm water can help get blood flow to areas that need it; so, gently stretch and work those areas while you are in there. But do not make it too hot, especially if you have a skin condition. The ideal temperature is between 920 F and 1000 F.
Use a bag of frozen peas or simply a plastic bag or wet towel with ice in the first 48 hours after an injury to help with pain and swelling. You also can use it on injuries that cause pain and swelling over and over again — but only after physical activity, not before. Never use ice for more than 20 minutes, and take it off if your skin gets red.
This is used for any number of things: it can help your skin keep its moisture and prevent chafing — on the inside of your thighs when you run, for example. It also can help protect your baby’s skin from diaper rash.
During international travel there are vaccination requirements for travel, and these include aspects of vaccination policy that concerns the movement of people across borders. Countries around the world require traveler departing to other countries or arriving from other countries, to be vaccinated against certain infectious diseases in order to prevent epidemics. Currently, the COVID-19 vaccination is mandatory for all international travels.
Internationally required vaccinations
- Yellow fever – Travelers who wish to enter certain countries or territories must be vaccinated against yellow fever ten days before crossing borders. Travelers from countries that have yellow fever are expected to be vaccinated before they cross borders.
- COVID-19 vaccine – With the COVID-19 pandemic, currently all international travels require one to have received the COVID vaccine to be accepted entry. This not only safeguards the migrant but also the people living in the COD. The vaccine is given in two dozes after a specified period. It is important to get the vaccine from authorized centres. The vaccine does not necessarily prevent infection but minimizes the extent and severity of the sickness.
- Sexuality, Sexual Harassment and Abuse
Sexual Reproductive Health
What is HIV/AIDS?
- HIV is a virus that can be transmitted from one person to another. It weakens the body’s resistance against other diseases. Someone who has contracted HIV is referred to as HIV-positive. If given proper medicines and treatment, an HIV-positive person can still be healthy. But if HIV is not treated properly, it will lead to AIDS.
- AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is when the body’s defenses have been damaged so badly by HIV that other diseases or infections like tuberculosis (TB) and diarrhea can kill you.
- How do you get HIV?
- The main transmission of HIV is unprotected sex with a person infected by HIV. The virus spreads through the fluids of the other person’s body — semen, vaginal fluid, blood, etc.
- You can also get HIV via blood transfusion if the blood donor is HIV-positive. If an HIV-positive woman gets pregnant, it is possible for the virus to travel from the other to the unborn child. The virus can also be transmitted to the baby via the mother’s infected blood and breast milk.
- Remember that the HIV virus is NOT transmitted by:
- Shaking hands, hugging, or kissing an HIV-positive person.
- Coughing or sneezing.
- Going to a hospital.
- Touching something that an HIV-positive person has touched.
- Using public/shared toilets or showers.
- Sharing food or utensils with an HIV-positive person.
- Living or working with HIV-positive people.
It is not possible to easily tell who has HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. If you have had unprotected sex, you should go to a clinic or hospital and get an HIV test done.
- The doctor will do a blood test to check if you are HIV-positive.
- Sometimes, it can take up to three months before the virus shows up; so, even if the doctor does not find HIV in your blood, you should go for another HIV test after three months.
- If you find out you are HIV-positive, you can take medical treatment and still stay healthy and live a normal life.
- Women who are pregnant and find out they are HIV-positive can take medical help for the unborn child as well.
What are STIs (sexually transmitted infections)?
- STIs are infections like HIV that spread from one person to another through sex or contact with STI-infected areas.
- Some signs that you have an STI will be difficulty or pain while urinating, pus coming out of your penis or vagina, or rashes/skin problems/swellings on or around your penis or vagina.
- Most STIs can be cured if you go to a doctor immediately but can do permanent damage if you do not get treatment.
- If you have unprotected sex or come into contact with another person’s fluids like semen, vaginal fluid, or blood, then you should go to a clinic or hospital and get tested for STIs.
Sexual Abuse and Harassment
Sexual Harassment – Behavior characterized by the making of unwelcome and inappropriate sexual remarks or physical advances in a workplace or other professional or social situation.
Types of sexual harassment
- Extortion when the act the person is required to perform is of a sexual nature.
- An indecent act, i.e., an act performed to cause humiliation, stimulation or sexual satisfaction.
- Repeated propositions that are of a sexual nature addressed to a person who has previously demonstrated to the harasser that they are not interested in the said propositions.
- Repeated remarks relating to the person’s sexuality when that person has already shown the harasser that they are not interested in the said remarks.
- Degrading or humiliating remarks relating to a person’s sex or sexuality, including their sexual orientation.
- Publishing a picture, video or recording of someone focusing on their sexuality for the purpose of humiliating or degrading the person without their consent.
- Propositions or remarks of a sexual nature when the harasser is aware that their target is not interested due to circumstances of exploiting a working relationship, dependency, and other services.
Sexual Abuse – Sexual abuse is sexual behavior or a sexual act forced upon a woman, man, or child without their consent. Sexual abuse includes abuse of a woman, man or child by a man, woman, or child.
Sexual abuse is an act of violence which the attacker uses against someone they perceive as weaker than them. It does not come from an uncontrollable sex drive, but is a crime committed deliberately with the goal of controlling and humiliating the victim.
Types of sexual abuse
- Sexual assault – A term including all sexual offenses. Any action or statement of a sexual nature and done without consent of the second party.
- Rape – Insertion of a bodily organ or an object into the sex organ, anus or mouth of a woman without her consent.
- Sodomy – Insertion of a bodily organ or an object into a person’s anus or mouth.
- Attempted rape – An attempt to insert force a woman (or a man) to have sex, often using violence.
- Gang rape – Rape carried out by more than one attacker.
- Serial rape – Repeated incidents of rape carried out by the same attacker over an extended period of time.
- Incest – Sexual abuse or assault at the hands of a family member.
- Especially for domestic workers, their job renders them vulnerable and being confined in houses exposes them to the vice.
- Ignorance – A person not aware that any inappropriate touching by an opposite sex is considered abuse and should be reported.
- Having no idea and where to report a sexual abuse case.
- Failure to detect actions that could lead to potential sexual abuse.
Once one is sexually abused, there are both physical and psychological implications.
- Physical implications – These include pain due to the abuse, exposure to diseases and infections or pregnancy.
- Psychological implications – These are unseen effects of abuse which cause trauma and sense of confusion to the victim. These effects are further aggravated by the complications that might have arisen from the physical effects.
How to manage yourself after being sexually abused (post-trauma management)
A victim of sexual abuse is requested to do the following:
- Seek immediate medical attention so as to avoid or manage the medical complications.
- Seek counseling from professionals to help you deal with the trauma of the abuse.
- Do not keep it to yourself; it can affect you badly.
- Report to the authorities and if possible, make sure you have evidence (i.e., a medical report).
- Avoid situations or circumstances that can expose you to abuse once again.
Appropriately sensitize the trainees about the idea of contraceptive methods.
- A contraceptive is any medicine or device used to prevent pregnancy. There are many different contraceptives for spacing the birth of children and preventing STI/RTI/HIV/AIDS. Among these contraceptives are condoms, daily oral contraceptive pills and emergency contraceptive pills.
- Note that contraceptives are not readily available in the GCC countries.
- Much as some contraceptives can reduce the chances of pregnancy, they do not guarantee 100% protection.
- Some contraceptives do not prevent contraction of sexually transmitted
- Personal Hygiene
Looking after yourself and your hygiene is important to prevent getting ill and spreading illness to others.
- Brush your teeth two to three times every day. Regular brushing and flossing of teeth will help to remove food particles and bacteria, which can cause bad breath. Remember to change your toothbrush regularly.
- Shower or bath daily using soap or body wash and water to remove dirt, sweat and bacteria, which all contribute to body odor. Make sure you wash your hair regularly to keep it clean and grease-free.
- Use deodorant daily to avoid strong body odor.
- Be sure to always wear clean and well-washed clothes including changing your inner wear and socks daily.
- Wash your hands regularly, especially after using the toilet and before eating or cooking food. Use water and soap and dry your hands well with a towel.
- Keep your nails clean and dirt-free and trim them, as necessary.
- Carry tissues to avoid sneezing and coughing into your hands and getting bacteria on them. Use a tissue when you need to blow your nose.
- Cut your hair regularly to keep it neat and tidy. Wear a hair net at work if asked to do so.
Cleanliness at work home and in communal living spaces
- Follow the personal hygiene tips to make sure you are clean and presentable at work, and neat and tidy at home. Personal hygiene is just as important at the workplace as it is at home. It is likely you will share a room or house with other migrant workers. You need to respect the people you live with by keeping yourself and your room or shared space clean and tidy.
- Clean and pick up after yourself, regularly clean your room and the spaces you share with other people including the kitchen and bathroom.
- Do not throw your rubbish on the ground; remove rubbish regularly so it does not build up to avoid attracting flies and other insects that can carry harmful bacteria.
- Keep floors and access routes clear of obstacles as they can harm you or someone else.
- Clean up a spill to prevent somebody else slipping on the wet or dirty surface. Keep your kitchen and bathroom clean from bacteria and other germs.
- If you wear protective clothes for work, you should wash these regularly and separate from your other clothes to prevent dangerous chemicals transferring to your other clothes.
- Do not urinate in public places or spit on the ground in public areas. These behaviors are considered to be anti-social by many people.
- Keep your food in the refrigerator; this will keep food from spoiling or becoming unsafe to eat.
- Wash up your dishes with soap and hot water after you use them so that harmful bacteria do not build up.
- Clean up spills on the floor or in the refrigerator when they happen.
By the end of this session, participants should be able to:
- Be aware of the new travel trends and restrictions.
- Understand how to watch out for health alerts and the importance of following the restrictions.
- Have knowledge of drugs and narcotics and their implication to the migration journey.
- Understanding human trafficking and smuggling and knowing how to avoid them or help a victim.
|1 hr. Travel Trends
1 hr Health Alerts
30 min Drugs and Narcotics
30 min Human Trafficking and Smuggling
|Methodology; Presentations, guest speakers, experience sharing, discussion, and Q&A.
|Facilitator Materials; Flip charts, markers, and video clips.
|Participants Materials; Copies of the slides or takeaway notes.
- Explain the changing patterns in the current international and local travel trends.
- Deliver a lecture on the current health alerts and related information.
- Explain the meaning of drugs and narcotics.
- Explain the rules and regulations governing the use of drugs and narcotics in the COD.
- Experience sharing on human trafficking and smuggling cases from migrant workers, NGOs and other officials that have ever assisted former victims.
KEY SESSION READING MATERIALS
Emerging Issues and Trends in Migration
- Travel Trends
Every year travel trends come and go; however, with COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns and the gradual start of opening up of borders, the travel trends will tremendously change:
- With the current pandemic situation, the free and easy travel is no longer healthy, and safety considerations are now more critical.
- New government regulations, health awareness is on high alert, including the requirement of a COVID-19 vaccination certificate.
- Change in business operations and work – People no longer travel a lot for business trips and workstations have shifted to people’s homes.
- Crowded tourist attractions are no longer a source of excitement but, rather, of anxiety; so, people are very cautious about them.
- It is important to stay connected as you travel; given the problems of abduction and trafficking as there is critical need to stay informed and updated on the latest guidelines.
- Increased domestic travel looking ahead and staying closer to home is becoming a familiarity (local residets getting to know their tourism sites) than faraway tourist destinations.
- Tour operators have to stay abreast of the latest information around the globe to suit their client needs and assurance of availability of trustworthy advice notice.
- Travelling in groups was a way of reducing costs however recently traveling with strangers is less popular as reliance of other to practice safe behavior might not be guaranteed
- Popularity of destination countries will in future be dictated by how well that country or region has controlled the coronavirus.
- Choices of flight post the COVID-19 pandemic will no longer be dependent on how cheap but, rather, the hygiene standards and precautions.
- The financial aftermath of the coronavirus will inevitably see people equally concerned about price and postpone their travel or such promotion and saving on their trips.
- Health Alerts (COVID Pandemic)
- area pandemic is referred to as a disease that is prevalent over the whole country or whole world. Currently, the COVID pandemic is surging and migrant workers need to be mindful of the causes and symptoms.
- During a pandemic, your personal health is important, and followed by the health of others around you.
- It is important to follow the regulations and guidelines provided by authorities in prevention and treatment during pandemics.
- It is important to understand the use of technology to access medical help and receive medical information.
- Be alert to hear new information or guidelines during the pandemic period.
- Drugs/ Narcotics
These are drugs such as opium or heroin which make you sleep and stop you from feeling pain.
Any of a group of drugs, such as heroin, morphine, and pethidine, that produce numbness and stupor. They are used medicinally to relieve pain but are sometimes also taken for their pleasant effects; however, prolonged use of anything that relieves pain or induces sleep, mental numbness, etc., may cause addiction. Much as migrant workers from Uganda may not have a history of using drugs, they can easily be exposed to the same in the CODs. Drugs are harmful and being in possession of the same can lead to legal offences. Migrants should be aware not to carry any unprescribed drugs or even accept to carry them for a third party.
- Human Trafficking and Smuggling
This is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. The exploitation may include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery, or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the removal of organs.
- Human Smuggling
This is the procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit of the illegal entry of a person into another country of which the person is not a national or permanent resident. This involves voluntary agreement of a person being smuggled. This happens when a migrant has legal restrictions or lacks knowledge of legal channels of entry or cannot otherwise freely move across borders.
Causes of Trafficking
- Poor governance that creates a climate in which traffickers can prosper due to an ineffective, absent, or corrupt public administration.
- Poor legal and judicial system where arrested traffickers are not punished.
- Unemployment, underemployment, and unpaid employment levels in the country.
- Inefficient legal migration channels and lack of information on existing means to obtain work abroad.
- Poverty and indebtedness – Persons wanting to run away from debt situations.
- Illiteracy and low levels of education.
- Lack of knowledge of the risks associated with illegal labor migration.
- Trafficking is a low-risk and high-profit business.
- Tendencies of nationals in some countries refusing to take on manual jobs.
- Increased female participation in labor force which creates the need for domestic helps and caregivers.
- Growth of sex and entertainment industries, thereby growing demand for sexual services.
- Absence of an effective regulatory framework and lack of enforcement.
- Lack of respect for and/or violation of human rights.
Trafficking Trends in Different Regions
- Children and young women are usually trafficked internally and across borders in Central and South America and in West and Central Africa for exploitation primarily in domestic services and the sex industry.
- Men are mostly trafficked within and across borders in South America to work in remote rural areas and in agriculture.
- People of all ages are trafficked across the land borders of South Asia for work in carpet and garment factories, for street hawking and begging, on construction sites, tea plantations and factories.
- In the Middle East and North Africa, women and girls are trafficked to work in domestic services and Asia men are trafficked into construction and manual labor.
- Migration flow to Western Europe from Eastern Europe and Asia includes women and girls trafficked into the sex industry as well as men trafficked for labor exploitation in agriculture or construction.
The trafficking cycle is a well-organized business that is divided into three consecutive stages following the elements of crime as outlined in the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children.
- Recruitment of potential candidates for employment abroad.
- Transferring of recruited worker to their assigned job abroad.
- The receipt or harboring of migrants in order to put them to work under coercive exploitation and forced labor conditions.
However, you should keep in mind that there are abusive conditions of each stage of this trafficking cycle. These can differ or seem not to exist at the beginning and take place at the later stage of the trafficking cycle when you start to work.
Talk to a lot of people before you make the decision to migrate, especially your family and friends. Returned migrants, and the MGLSD, UAERA and PRAs can also help answer your questions.
Educate yourself about what living and working abroad is really like, the costs involved, what job you might do, the documents you need, what challenges you may experience (e.g., being away from your family for many years) and the money you can save and send home. Find out as much as you can about the culture and lifestyle in the destination country before you decide to migrate.
You are much more likely to get protection from the authorities in your home country and while abroad if you migrate through legal/regular channels. Irregular migrants are at much greater risk of being exploited. An irregular migrant can be arrested or detained in the destination country and deported.
Check your private recruitment agency
Check that the recruitment agency is properly licensed and has a good reputation. If your recruiter or employer is asking you to change your age or work without a contract, it is a warning sign that your employer does not want to comply with the legal ways and may be planning to take advantage of you. Ask for and keep receipts for any payments made in the recruitment and migration process.
Sign a contract with the recruitment agency and with your employer
You should sign a contract with the recruitment agency and with your employer before you leave. Ask someone you trust for help in reviewing these contracts and make sure you understand all the terms in the contract, because these contracts state what you have agreed to. At a minimum, the contract should include the details of your pay, work hours and leave allowance, where you will work, and the duties you will be expected to undertake.
Keep hold of your documents and make photocopies before you go
Make copies of your passport, visa, work permit, contract, ID cards and other travel documents. Leave copies with family and friends before you leave. Put the original copies of these documents in a safe place when you arrive at your destination but keep spare copies with you at all times.
Prepare for emergencies
Make a list of important contract details prior to your departure. Leave one copy with your family and take the other with you. This list should include the telephone number of your embassy, your country’s recruitment agency, destination country recruitment agency, UAERA and the Ugandan association in your country of destination, your family, friends, and anyone else who might assist you in your host country. Keep these contact details with you at all times.
Make sure you have a network of support
Regularly communicate with your family and friends to let them know you are safe. Make plans with your family about how you will communicate and how regularly you will contact them. Try to make friends and create your own network of support in the destination country. Find out who you can turn to for assistance and ask for help if you need it.
If you experience problems at work
If you have a conflict at the workplace, talk to your supervisor or to the recruitment agency first. It is in everyone’s interest to resolve disputes. Try to record the incidents or problems occurring in case you need to file a formal complaint. If the problem is not resolved, you should contact your embassy or the authorities for help.